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Descriptions of Social Studies Disciplines
SOCIAL STUDIES DISCIPLINES
The scientific study of human beings from prehistory to contemporary societies. It includes all
aspects of human development, both physical and cultural. The field of archeology is the study of humanity
through fossils and artifacts. The field of physical anthropology deals with the biological development of
humans. The field of cultural anthropology studies the ways humans have devised to cope with their natural
settings and social environments and how customs are learned, retained, and handed down from one generation
The scientific study of the production and exchange of goods and services. The economist
analyzes the data, issues, and public policies related to the production, distribution, and consumption of scarce
resources. The economist describes the economic system in an effort to explain how people satisfy their wants
and needs. The economic behavior of humans is concerned with methods of doing business, producing,
organizing (labor and management), financing, and regulating economic activities.
The study Earth’s surface, the utilization of raw materials and resources, and human behavior as it
is influenced by location and other geographic factors. Geography is the scientific study of the relationship
between the physical environment and human activities. Geography deals with the description of the earth's
surface, the changes that occur in it, the knowledge of its various parts (land, water, and atmosphere), and the
theories of its formation and change.
Encompasses all that has happened to humanity. History, in a narrower sense, can be limited to the
history of a country (all that has happened in that country), or it can be limited to a group of people, and
institution, a community, etc. History is more than a systematic record of events of the past, because it usually
includes analysis and explanation of these events. History is the record of changes of civilizations.
The scientific study of the theory and practice of humanity in organizing and controlling the
power necessary for group living. Different societies have different methods of human control. The process of
government can be studied by description, through comparison and classification of political data. Political
science includes the art, science, and philosophy of the governmental process.
Group living is the result of humanity's social needs and necessitates cooperation within and between groups.
Groups are constantly changing in nature and functions because personality, attitudes, motivation, and behavior
of individuals both influence and are influenced by social groups. Therefore, individual adjustment to group
living is constantly necessary.
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